The Council of the European Union adopted on 22 May 2018 a revised recommendation on key competences for lifelong learning.

Key competences are a dynamic combination of the knowledge, skills and attitudes a learner needs to develop throughout life, starting from early age onwards. High quality and inclusive education, training and lifelong learning provides opportunities for all to develop key competences, therefore competence-oriented approaches can be used in all education, training and learning settings throughout life.

I have been suprised by the lack of discussion about this important decision. That is why I decided to collect from the Council documentation the essential information concerning these revised competences. Most of the text is based on the following documents:

OUTCOME OF THE COUNCIL MEETING, 3617th Council meeting Education, Youth, Culture and Sport, Brussels, 22 and 23 May 2018

Proposal for a Council Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning, Permanent Representatives Committee, Brussels, 2 May 2018,


Everyone has the right to quality and inclusive education in Europe

According to Council, everyone has the right to quality and inclusive education, training and life-long learning in order to maintain and acquire skills that enable them to participate fully in society and manage successfully transitions in the labour market.

Everyone has the right to timely and tailor-made assistance to improve employment or self-employment prospects. This includes the right to receive support for job search, training and re-qualification.

  • The European Pillar of Social Rights (COM(2017)250) states as its first principle that everyone has the right to quality and inclusive education, training and lifelong learning in order to maintain and acquire skills that allow full participation in society and successful transitions in the labour market.

Key competences – short history

In 2006, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union adopted a Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning (2006/962/EC). In 2017 the European Commission launched a consultation to revise the old Key Competences. The Education Committee discussed the proposed recommendations during the Bulgarian presidency and the Education Council made the final decision on the 22nd of May, 2018.

DigComp 2.0 & Entrecomp

  • Special attention has been given to improving basic skills, investing in language learning, improving digital and entrepreneurial competences, the relevance of common values in the functioning of our societies, and motivating more young people to engage in science related careers.
  • The development of the Digital Competence Framework and the Entrepreneurship Competence Framework has proven to be valuable for supporting competence development.

The key competences are equally important

The key competences are developed in a lifelong learning perspective, from early childhood throughout adult life, and through formal, non-formal and informal learning in all contexts, including family, school, workplace, neighbourhood and other communities. They are all considered equally important; each of them contributes to a successful life in society.

The Reference Framework sets out eight key competences


1 Communication in the mother tongue Literacy competence
2 Communication in foreign languages Multilingual  competence
3 Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology Mathematical competence and competence in science, technology, and engineering
4 Digital competence Digital competence
5 Learning to learn Personal, social and learning to learn competence
6 Social and civic competences Citizenship competence
7 Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship competence
8 Cultural awareness and expression Cultural awareness and expression competence


1 Literacy competence

Literacy is the ability to identify, understand, express, create, and interpret concepts, feelings, facts and opinions in both oral and written forms, using visual, sound/audio and digital materials across disciplines and contexts. It implies the ability to communicate and connect effectively with others, in an appropriate and creative way.

Development of literacy forms the basis for further learning and further linguistic interaction. Depending on the context, literacy competence can be developed in the mother tongue, the language of schooling and/ or the official language in a country or region.

Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence

This competence involves the knowledge of reading and writing and a sound understanding of written information and thus requires an individual to have knowledge of vocabulary, functional grammar and the functions of language. It includes an awareness of the main types of verbal interaction, a range of literary and non-literary texts, and the main features of different styles and registers of language.

Individuals should have the skills to communicate both orally and in writing in a variety of situations and to monitor and adapt their own communication to the requirements of the situation. This competence also includes the abilities to distinguish and use different types of sources, to search for, collect and process information, to use aids, and to formulate and express one’s oral and written arguments in a convincing way appropriate to the context. It encompasses critical thinking and ability to assess and work with information.

A positive attitude towards literacy involves a disposition to critical and constructive dialogue, an appreciation of aesthetic qualities and an interest in interaction with others. This implies an awareness of the impact of language on others and a need to understand and use language in a positive and socially responsible manner.

2. Multilingual competence

This competence defines the ability to use different languages appropriately and effectively for communication. It broadly shares the main skill dimensions of literacy: it is based on the ability to understand, express and interpret concepts, thoughts, feelings, facts and opinions in both oral and written form (listening, speaking, reading and writing) in an appropriate range of societal and cultural contexts according to one’s wants or needs. Languages competences integrate a historical dimension and intercultural competences. It relies on the ability to mediate between different languages and media, as outlined in the Common European Framework of Reference. As appropriate, it can include maintaining and further developing mother tongue competences, as well as the acquisition of a country’s official language(s).

Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence

This competence requires knowledge of vocabulary and functional grammar of different languages and an awareness of the main types of verbal interaction and registers of languages. Knowledge of societal conventions, and the cultural aspect and variability of languages is important.

Essential skills for this competence consist of the ability to understand spoken messages, to initiate, sustain and conclude conversations and to read, understand and draft texts, with different levels of proficiency in different languages, according to the individual’s needs. Individuals should be able to use tools appropriately and learn languages formally, non-formally and informally throughout life.

A positive attitude involves the appreciation of cultural diversity, an interest and curiosity about different languages and intercultural communication. It also involves respect for each person’s individual linguistic profile, including both respect for the mother tongue of persons belonging to minorities and/or with a migrant background and appreciation for a country’s official language(s) as a common framework for interaction


3. Mathematical competence and competence in science, technology, engineering


  1. Mathematical competence is the ability to develop and apply mathematical thinking and insight in order to solve a range of problems in everyday situations. Building on a sound mastery of numeracy, the emphasis is on process and activity, as well as knowledge. Mathematical competence involves, to different degrees, the ability and willingness to use mathematical modes of thought and presentation (formulas, models, constructs, graphs, charts).
  2. Competence in science refers to the ability and willingness to explain the natural world by making use of the body of knowledge and methodology employed, including observation and experimentation, in order to identify questions and to draw evidence-based conclusions. Competences in technology and engineering are applications of that knowledge and methodology in response to perceived human wants or needs. Competence in science, technology and engineering involves an understanding of the changes caused by human activity and responsibility as an individual citizen.

Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence

Necessary knowledge in mathematics includes a sound knowledge of numbers, measures and structures, basic operations and basic mathematical presentations, an understanding of mathematical terms and concepts, and an awareness of the questions to which mathematics can offer answers.

An individual should have the skills to apply basic mathematical principles and processes in everyday contexts at home and work (e.g. financial skills), and to follow and assess chains of arguments. An individual should be able to reason mathematically, understand mathematical proof and communicate in mathematical language, and to use appropriate aids including statistical data and graphs and to understand the mathematical aspects of digitalisation.

  1. Positive attitude in mathematics is based on the respect for truth and a willingness to look for reasons and to assess their validity.
  2. For science, technology and engineering, essential knowledge comprises the basic principles of the natural world, fundamental scientific concepts, theories, principles and methods, technology and technological products and processes, as well as an understanding of the impact of science, technology, engineering and human activity in general on the natural world. These competences should enable individuals to better understand the advances, limitations and risks of scientific theories, applications and technology in societies at large (in relation to decision-making, values, moral questions, culture, etc.).

Skills include the understanding of science as a process for the investigation through specific methodologies, including observations and controlled experiments, the ability to use logical and rational thought to verify a hypothesis and the readiness to discard one’s own convictions when they contradict new experimental findings. It includes the ability to use and handle technological tools and machines as well as scientific data to achieve a goal or to reach an evidence-based decision or conclusion. Individuals should also be able to recognise the essential features of scientific inquiry and have the ability to communicate the conclusions and reasoning that led to them.

Competence includes an attitude of critical appreciation and curiosity, a concern for ethical issues and support for both safety and environmental sustainability, in particular as regards scientific and technological progress in relation to oneself, family, community, and global issues.

Digital competence

Digital competence involves the confident, critical and responsible use of, and engagement with, digital technologies for learning, at work, and for participation in society. It includes information and data literacy, communication and collaboration, media literacy, digital content creation (including programming), safety (including digital well-being and competences related to cybersecurity), intellectual property related questions and problem solving.

Digital competence –
Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence

  • Individuals should understand how digital technologies can support communication, creativity and innovation, and be aware of their opportunities, limitations, effects and risks.
  • They should understand the general principles, mechanisms and logic underlying evolving digital technologies and know the basic function and use of different devices, software, and networks.
  • Individuals should take a critical approach to the validity, reliability and impact of information and data made available by digital means and be aware of the legal and ethical principles involved in engaging with digital technologies.
  • Individuals should be able to use digital technologies to support their active citizenship and social inclusion, collaboration with others, and creativity towards personal, social or commercial goals.
  • Skills include the ability to use, access, filter, evaluate, create, program and share digital content. Individuals should be able to manage and protect information, content, data, and digital identities, as well as recognise and effectively engage with software, devices, artificial intelligence or robots.
  • Engagement with digital technologies and content requires a reflective and critical, yet curious, open-minded and forward-looking attitude to their evolution. It also requires an ethical, safe and responsible approach to the use of these tools.

5. Personal, social and learning to learn competence

Personal, social and learning to learn competence is the ability to reflect upon oneself, effectively manage time and information, work with others in a constructive way, remain resilient and manage one’s own learning and career. It includes the ability to cope with uncertainty and complexity, learn to learn, support one’s physical and emotional well-being, to maintain physical and mental health, and to be able to lead a health-conscious, future-oriented life, empathize and manage conflict in an inclusive and supportive context.

Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence

For successful interpersonal relations and social participation it is essential to understand the codes of conduct and rules of communication generally accepted in different societies and environments. Personal, social and learning to learn competence requires also knowledge of the components of a healthy mind, body and lifestyle. It involves knowing one’s preferred learning strategies, knowing one’s competence development needs and various ways to develop competences and search for the education, training and career opportunities and guidance or support available.

Skills include the ability to identify one’s capacities, focus, deal with complexity, critically reflect and make decisions. This includes the ability to learn and work both collaboratively and autonomously and to organise and persevere with one’s learning, evaluate and share it, seek support when appropriate and effectively manage one’s career and social interactions. Individuals should be resilient and able to cope with uncertainty and stress. They should be able to communicate constructively in different environments, collaborate in teams and negotiate. This includes showing tolerance, expressing and understanding different viewpoints, as well as the ability to create confidence and feel empathy.

The competence is based on a positive attitude toward one’s personal, social and physical wellbeing and learning throughout one’s life. It is based on an attitude of collaboration, assertiveness and integrity. This includes respecting diversity of others and their needs and being prepared both to overcome prejudices and to compromise. Individuals should be able to identify and set goals, motivate themselves, and develop resilience and confidence to pursue and succeed at learning throughout their lives. A problem-solving attitude supports both the learning process and the individual’s ability to handle obstacles and change. It includes the desire to apply prior learning and life experiences and the curiosity to look for opportunities to learn and develop in a variety of life contexts.

6. Citizenship competence

Citizenship competence is the ability to act as responsible citizens and to fully participate in civic and social life, based on understanding of social, economic, legal and political concepts and structures, as well as global developments and sustainability.

Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence

Citizenship competence is based on knowledge of basic concepts and phenomena relating to individuals, groups, work organisations, society, economy and culture. This involves an understanding of the European common values, as expressed in Article 2 of the Treaty on the European Union and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. It includes knowledge of contemporary events, as well as a critical understanding of the main developments in national, European and world history. In addition, it includes an awareness of the aims, values and policies of social and political movements, as well as of sustainable systems, in particular climate and demographic change at the global level and their underlying causes. Knowledge of European integration as well as an awareness of diversity and cultural identities in Europe and the world is essential. This includes an understanding of the multi-cultural and socio-economic dimensions of European societies, and how national cultural identity contributes to the European identity.

Skills for citizenship competence relate to the ability to engage effectively with others in common or public interest, including the sustainable development of society. This involves critical thinking and integrated problem solving skills, as well as skills to develop arguments and constructive participation in community activities, as well as in decision-making at all levels, from local and national to the European and international level. This also involves the ability to access, have a critical understanding of, and interact with both traditional and new forms of media and understand the role and functions of media in democratic societies.

Respect for human rights as a basis for democracy lays the foundations for a responsible and constructive attitude. Constructive participation involves willingness to participate in democratic decision-making at all levels and civic activities. It includes support for social and cultural diversity, gender equality and social cohesion, sustainable lifestyles, promotion of culture of peace and nonviolence, a readiness to respect the privacy of others, and to take responsibility for the environment. Interest in political and socio-economic developments, humanities and intercultural communication is needed to be prepared both to overcome prejudices and to compromise where necessary and to ensure social justice and fairness.

Entrepreneurship competence

Entrepreneurship competence refers to the capacity to act upon opportunities and ideas, and to transform them into values for others.

It is founded upon creativity, critical thinking and problem solving, taking initiative and perseverance and the ability to work collaboratively in order to plan and manage projects that are of cultural, social or commercial value.

Entrepreneurship competence –
Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence


  • Entrepreneurship competence requires knowing that there are different contexts and opportunities for turning ideas into action in personal, social and professional activities, and an understanding of how these arise.
  • Individuals should know and understand approaches to planning and management of projects, which include both processes and resources.
  • They should have an understanding of economics and the social and economic opportunities and challenges facing an employer, organisation or society.
  • They should also be aware of ethical principles and challenges of sustainable development and have self-awareness of their own strengths and weaknesses.
  • Entrepreneurial skills are founded on creativity which includes imagination, strategic thinking and problem-solving, and critical and constructive reflection within evolving creative processes and innovation.
  • They include the ability to work both as an individual and collaboratively in teams, to mobilize resources (people and things) and to sustain activity. This includes the ability to make financial decisions relating to cost and value. The ability to effectively communicate and negotiate with others, and to cope with uncertainty, ambiguity and risk as part of making informed decisions is essential.
  • An entrepreneurial attitude is characterised by a sense of initiative and agency, pro-activity, being forward-looking, courage and perseverance in achieving objectives. It includes a desire to motivate others and value their ideas, empathy and taking care of people and the world, and accepting responsibility taking ethical approaches throughout the process.

Cultural awareness and expression competence

 Competence in cultural awareness and expression involves having an understanding of and respect for how ideas and meaning are creatively expressed and communicated in different cultures and through a range of arts and other cultural forms. It involves being engaged in understanding, developing and expressing one’s own ideas and sense of place or role in society in a variety of ways and contexts.

Cultural awareness and expression competence –
Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence


  • This competence requires knowledge of local, national, European and global cultures and expressions, including their languages, heritage and traditions, and cultural products, and an understanding of how these expressions can influence each other as well as the ideas of the individual.
  • It includes understanding the different ways of communicating ideas between creator, participant and audience within written, printed and digital texts, theatre, film, dance, games, art and design, music, rituals, and architecture, as well as hybrid forms.
  • It requires an understanding of one’s own developing identity within a world of cultural diversity and how arts and other cultural forms can be a way to both view and shape the world.
  • Skills include the ability to express and interpret figurative and abstract ideas, experiences and emotions with empathy, and the ability to do so in a range of arts and other cultural forms.
  • Skills also include the ability to identify and realise opportunities for personal, social or commercial value through the arts and other cultural forms and the ability to engage in creative processes, both as an individual and collectively.
  • It is important to have an open attitude towards, and respect for, diversity of cultural expression together with an ethical and responsible approach to intellectual and cultural ownership. A positive attitude also includes a curiosity about the world, an openness to imagine new possibilities, and a willingness to participate in cultural experiences.


Variety of approaches

  • Cross-diciplinary learning allows for strengthening the connectivity between the different subjects in the curriculum, as well as establishing a firm link between what is being taught and societal change and relevance.
  • Strengthening personal, social and learning competences from early age can provide a foundation for development of basic skills.
  • Learning methodologies such as inquiry-based, project-based, blended, arts- and games-based learning can increase learning motivation and engagement.
  • Learners, educational staff and learning providers could be encouraged to use digital technologies to improve learning and to support the development of digital competences.

Entrepreneurial approaches

  • Specific opportunities for entrepreneurial experiences, such as mini companies, traineeships in companies or entrepreneurs visiting education and training institutions could be particularly beneficial for young people, but also for adults and for teachers.
  • Young people could be given the opportunity to have at least one entrepreneurial experience during their school education.
  • School and business partnerships and platforms at local level, notably in rural areas, can be key players in spreading entrepreneurial education.
  • Appropriate training and support for teachers and principals could be crucial to create sustained progress and leadership.

Key competences in your language

You can find the revised key comptences for lifelong learning in all the European languages from the link below:

Council recommendation on key competences for lifelong learning, 2018, in all European languages


OUTCOME OF THE COUNCIL MEETING, 3617th Council meeting Education, Youth, Culture and Sport, Brussels, 22 and 23 May 2018 http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/35296/st09078-en18.pdf

Proposal for a Council Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning, Permanent Representatives Committee, Brussels, 2 May 2018, http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-8299-2018-INIT/en/pdf

Proposal for a COUNCIL RECOMMENDATION on Key Competences for LifeLong Learning, January 2018, European Commission




Curriculum Reform in the European Schools – Towards a 21st Century Vision

Sandra Leaton Gray • David Scott • Peeter Mehisto

Curriculum Reform in the European Schools
Towards a 21st Century Vision

Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, Cham

ISBN 978-3-319-71463-9 / ISBN 978-3-319-71464-6  (eBook)


An excerpt from the foreword written by Kari Kivinen, the former Secretary-General of the European schools  (read the whole chapter HERE )


As Secretary-General of the European School system I made it a priority to launch a wholescale pedagogical reform of the European school system. The Board of Governors of the European schools created a working group to discuss the matter. It was obvious that an external view was needed. That important task was given to the Institute of Education, University College London. The group of experts from the UCL Institute of Education came up with a rather impressive array of essential and well-justified remarks and recommendations, as you will see from the contents of this book.

Many of these recommendations are not only valid for the European school system but they have a greater, universal value. What should an ideal twenty-first century curriculum look like? What are the aims and objectives of a modern educational programme? How should we implement the eight EU key competences in the curriculum design? How should we create a coherent and effective educational setting? What kind of skills and competences will students need for successful entry to further and higher education? What is the role of the mother tongue in a multilingual and multicultural context? What would be the best way to promote language teaching? How should we develop assessment and evaluation standards? This is just a sample of the many questions that need to be raised.


School providers, school heads, teachers, parents and political policy-makers all over Europe are confronted with the same questions as we are in the European schools. How can we reform the school system to provide students with the right set of competences for the future? How can we bring new findings of the pedagogical research into practice? How can we build up a differentiated curriculum, which takes account of the different types of needs and abilities of children? How can we reform assessment systems to meet the new challenges of increased accountability?

This book is an intellectually stimulating overview of the latest curriculum design ideas of pedagogical research. It will be of interest to everybody who wants to grasp the essence of the ideal twenty-first century educational setting, according to the leading academics in the field.

Kari Kivinen

The new book is also available for free as an eBook online. Have a look!




The European Commission High Level Group report on fake news and online disinformation & Media and Information Literacy (MIL)



In March 2018, the European Commission High Level Group on fake news and online disinformation (“the HLEG”) published their report on policy initiatives to counter fake news and disinformation spread online.

Mikko Salo, one of the founders of the Finnish fact checking organisation Faktabaari, was chosen to be member of the HLEG.

In the first place, the HLEG proposes to abandon of the term “fake news,” because it is inadequate in explaining the complexity of the situation, and leads to confusion in the way researchers discuss the issue, it is reported on in the media, and discussed by policy-makers.

According to the HLEG definition, “disinformation includes all forms of false, inaccurate, or misleading information designed, presented and promoted to intentionally cause public harm or for profit” but “it does not cover issues arising from the creation and dissemination online of illegal content (notably defamation, hate speech, incitement to violence), which are subject to regulatory remedies under EU or national laws, nor other forms of deliberate but not misleading distortions of facts such a satire and parody.”

The increased amplification of disinformation is linked with the development of digital media. There are several actors which are producing and circulating manipulative disinformation for different types of purposes.

The HLEG acknowledges that, disinformation can be harmful for citizens and society at large: “The risk of harm includes threats to democratic political processes, including integrity of elections, and to democratic values that shape public policies in a variety of sectors, such as health, science, finance and more.”

The HLEG recommendations aim to provide short term responses to the most important problems and longer-term responses to increase societal resilience to disinformation. These responses rest on five pillars designed to:

  1. “enhance transparency of online news, involving an adequate and privacy-compliant sharing of data about the systems that enable their circulation online;
  2. promote  media and information literacy to counter disinformation and help users navigate the digital media environment;
  3. develop tools for empowering users and journalists to tackle disinformation and foster a positive engagement with fast-evolving information technologies;
  4. safeguard the diversity and sustainability of the European news media ecosystem, and
  5. promote continued research on the impact of disinformation in Europe to evaluate the measures taken by different actors and constantly adjust the necessary responses.”

As an educator, I am very pleased to notice that the HLEG is promoting media and information literacy (MIL) as an essential competence for developing critical thinking and good personal practices for discourse in online and offline world.  According to the HLEF report “The media and information literacy is a preventive, rather than a reactive solution, engendering critical thinking skills that are crucial for the 21st century citizen living in an increasingly digital environment.”

The HLEG stresses that media literacy is an important action line as a response to disinformation because it can empower individual users as suggested above and mass empowerment of users will lead to greater social resilience against disinformation and perhaps other disorders of the information age.

The HLEG recommends that European institutions and national governments should

  • recognize media and information literacy as core literacy by integrating critical media literacy into the core literacies guaranteed to all schoolchildren in Europe, with formal status in national school curricula.
  • mandate teacher training colleges to include critical media literacy modules and encourage critical media literacy to become an integral part of all subject-learning, lifelong learning for teachers. EU could support such teacher training through Erasmus+, Training and Education 2020 and similar schemes.

It recommends further that professional media and fact-checkers commit to playing an active role in media literacy education, adding their field experience and technological expertise to tested and verified media literacy approaches.


Finnish curriculum

The new Finnish core curriculum is already updated to meet the recommendations of the HLEG. All the Finnish schools should provide their pupils basic competences to use information independently and in interaction with others for problem-solving, argumentation, reasoning, drawing of conclusions and invention and they should have opportunities to analyse the topic being discussed critically from different viewpoints. The students should be able to know where and how to search information and they should be able to evaluate the usability and reliability of sources. The schools should also support the students’ growth into active, responsible, and enterprising citizens.

Teacher training

There is nevertheless a gap between the theory and practice. According to my experience, teachers need updated set of tools and methods to deal with the increase of the quantity of information and diversification of the variety of sources. In addition, the media landscape is re-shaping constantly and it has become more and more difficult to distinguish information from dis-information and authenticity of the photos and videos.

Schools and teachers need updated set of tools and methods in order to be able to meet the MIL curricula goals and to provide support and encouragement for their pupils which are confronting and dealing with unclear and conflicting information.

In the French-Finnish school of Helsinki (click here to visit our media education site), we have piloted various methods with great success togehter with the experts of FaktabaariEDU , but we still need to work a lot to update our tools and upskill our teachers even further. Therefore we have launched a rather ambitious European level ERASMUS+ application in order to join the forces with MIL experts around the Europe.





Mediassa on keskusteltu erityisesti USA:n presidentinvaalien jälkeen ”valeuutisista”, ”totuuden jälkeisestä ajasta” ja ”vaihtoehtoisista faktoista”. Sosiaalisen median piirissä puhutaan paljon vihapuheesta ja nettikiusaamisesta.

Termien sekamelskassa on välillä vaikea hahmottaa, mistä on milloinkin kysymys. Monet käsitteistä ovat uusia ja kaikille termeille ei ole vielä vakiintunut hyviä suomalaisia vastineita.  

Me kaikki tarvitsemme kriittistä medialukutaitoa tietojen oikeellisuuden tarkistamiseksi uutisvirtaa selatessamme.

Olen koonnut tähän artikkeliin lähinnä Faktabaarin käsikirjasta selkeitä käsitteiden määrityksiä, tietoa erilaisista harhaanjohtavista uutisista ja ohjeita disinformaation havaitsemiseksi.



Mis-, dis- ja malinformaatio

Faktabaarin toimitus ja Severi Hämäri ovat toimittaneet erittäin hyvän koosteen uusista termeistä ja niiden määritelmistä. Termien suomenkieliset vastineet ovat kuitenkin monessa tapauksessa vasta muotoutumassa. Seuraavassa Faktabaarin toimituksen ehdottamia määritelmiä:

“Misinformaatiolla tarkoitetaan tahattomasti virheellistä viestintää. Asian sanoja tai kirjoittaja ei tiedä sanoneensa jotain perätöntä tai harhaannuttavaa. Viestintä levittää väärää tietoa.

Disinformaatiolla tarkoitetaan tarkoituksella väärennettyä tai harhaanjohtavaa viestintää, jonka tavoitteena on haitan tai vahingon tuottaminen jollekin henkilölle, yhteisölle, ihmisryhmälle tai valtiolle.

Malinformaatiosta puhutaan, kun totuudenmukaista informaatiota käytetään tahallisesti vahingoittamaan yksilöä, yhteisöä tai valtiota. Erityisesti vastoin tiedon sovittuja käyttötapoja.”



See: https://firstdraftnews.com/coe_infodisorder/

Motiivina disinformaation välittämiseen on monia. Valheelliset kohu-uutiset (“fake news”) vetävät uteliaiden klikkaajien myötä mainostuloja median sivustolle. Tätä ilmiötä voidaan kutsua taloudellisesti motivoituneeksi disinformaatioksi.

Poliittisen mielipiteen muokkaamista voimakkaalla viestinnällä keinoja kaihtamatta kutsutaan“propagandaksi” eli poliittisesti  motivoituneeksi disinformaatioksi. 

Nettikiusaaminen ja vihapuhe  ovat tyypillisiä malinformaation muotoja.

Twitter-keskustelussa on ehdotettu seuraavia mis-, dis ja malinformaatiolle suomenkielisiä termejä:

misinformaatio = virheellinen tieto, eli erhe

disinformaatio = vääristelty tieto (tai väärennetty tieto tai vedätys)

malinformaatio = vahingollinen tieto (tai juoru)

Katsotaan, mikä termi vakiintuu käyttöön!

Harhaajohtavia uutistyyppejä


Tutkija Claire Wardle on julkaissut syksyllä 2017 Euroopan Neuvoston toimeksiannosta kiinnostavan erittelyn siitä, mistä kaikesta hämmentävissä uutisissa voi olla kyse.  Seuraavassa Faktabaaarin Esa Väliverrosen kooste Wardlen harhaanjohtavien uutistyyppien luokittelusta:

Ilmiön viattominta ääripäätä edustavat satiiri- ja parodiasivustot, jotka levittävät keksittyjä uutissisältöjä.

Seuraavana tulevat uutisjutut, joiden otsikot tai kuvat antavat harhaanjohtavan kuvan itse jutun sisällöstä, joka on sinänsä paikkansapitävä. Tämä on journalismissa yleistä eikä rajoitu mitenkään varsinaisiin valeuutissivustoihin. 

Samaa voi sanoa kolmannesta tyypistä, joka on journalismin tapa kehystää uutisaiheita ja henkilöitä niin, että tuloksena on yksipuolinen ja harhaanjohtava kuva.

Neljäs tyyppi on sinänsä paikkansapitävän tiedon kytkeminen uuteen asiayhteyteen, jossa sen merkitys muuttuu ratkaisevasti

Viidennessä tapauksessa jonkun todellisen henkilön väitetään sanoneen jotakin, joka on täysin keksittyä.

Kuudentena on oikean tiedon manipulointi niin, että sen merkitys muuttuu kokonaan. Motiivina on tietoinen petkuttaminen.

Viimeisenä tulevat täysin fiktiiviset, keksityt uutiset, joiden tavoitteena on manipuloida julkista keskustelua.”

Mediataitokoulu on julkaissut EAVI:n infogrammista suomennetun ja muokatun “Pelkkää feikkiä?” julisteen tammikuussa 2018.



Muita harhaanjohtavia uutistyyppejä

Faktabaarin toimitus ja Severi Hämäri (Faktabaari, 2018) ovat listanneet vähän samanlaisen koosteen harhaanjohtavista uutissisältötyypeistä:

“Salaliittoteorialla tarkoitetaan sellaista epätotta väitettä, jonka kannattajan uskomus siihen vahvistuu kaikista yrityksistä osoittaa se paikkansapitämättömyydeksi.

Näennäistiede on hyvin samankaltainen ilmiö kuin salaliittoteoria, mutta eroaa siinä, että se esittää olevansa tiedettä.

Virheellinen attribuutio: esitetään jonkun henkilön tai tahon nimissä asioita, joita hän ei ole sanonut.

Harhaanjohtava otsikointi on sitä, että otsikko ei vastaa sisältöä. Pelkkä tehokas otsikointi saattaa saada sosiaalisessa mediassa aikaan tehokasta leviämistä, eli trendaamista.  Kyseessä on ns.  “clickbait” kun tavoitteena on saada käyttäjä klikkaamaan sisältöä vastaamatonta linkkiä.

Sisällön vääristämistä on mm. väärennetyt tai väärään yhteyteen laitetut kuvat, tilastot, videot, nauhoitteet jne.

Kaikukammiosta on kyse, kun samanmieliset henkilöt ovat ajautuneet (netissä tai sen ulkopuolella) keskustelemaan vain keskenään.”



Milloin on syytä epäillä disinformaatiota?

On oltava varuillaan, jos (Faktabaari, 2018)

  • Viestiä toistetaan erittäin tiheään
  • Viestin yhteydessä on huomiota herättäviä kuvia
  • Viesti pyrkii nostattamaan voimakkaan tunnereaktion
  • Siihen liittyy vahvoja tarinallisia elementtejä
  • Viestin lähteet ovat oudot, poikkeukselliset, esim. sivun metatiedot johtavat eri maahan kuin viestin sisältö antaisi ymmärtää
  • Hakukoneet löytävät saman tai lähes saman viestin mutta tuntuvasti vanhemmalla päiväyksellä
  • Viestiin liittyvät kuvat löytyvät netistä muista yhteyksistä käänteisellä kuvahaulla
  • Viestiä levittävä taho levittää muuta epäilyttävää sisältöä
  • (Huom: lista on suuntaa antava. Sen avulla ei pysty tyhjentävästi tunnistamaan kaikkea disinformaatiota.)


Faktantarkistusta kouluihin

Helsingin ranskalais-suomalaisessa koulussa on pilotoitu jo kahden vuoden ajan Faktabaarin asiantuntijoiden faktantarkastusmenetelmien soveltamista uuden opetussuunnitelman puitteessa kouluopetukseen.  Kokeilu on ollut erittäin innostava. Siitä voi lukea enemmän  HRSK:n mediakasvatussivuilta ja FaktabaariEDU-sivustolta.

Kari Kivinen, 20.1.2018


Lähteitä ja lisätietoa:

Disinformaation analysointi ja faktantarkistuprosessi, Faktabaarin toimitus/Severi Hämäri, 2018, https://faktabaari.fi/disinformaation-analysointi-ja-faktantarkistusprosessi/

Baaripuhetta, ”Valeuutiset” ja huonot uutiset, Faktabaarin toimitus/Esa Väliverronen, 2017, https://faktabaari.fi/valeuutiset/

Baaripuhetta, Miten suojautua informaatiovaikuttamiselta?, Faktabaarin toimitus/ Saara Jantunen & Veli-Pekka Kivimäki, 2017, https://faktabaari.fi/baaripuhetta-miten-suojautua-informaatiovaikuttamiselta/ 

Mediataitokoulu, 2018, http://mediataitokoulu.fi/

Information disorder- Toward an interdiciplinary framework for research and policy making, European Council, 2017, https://firstdraftnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/PREMS-162317-GBR-2018-Report-de%CC%81sinformation-1.pdf?x91364

Beyond fake news –  10 types of misleading information, EAVI, https://eavi.eu/beyond-fake-news-10-types-misleading-info/

FaktabaariEDU, https://faktabaari.fi/edu/

Helsingin ranskalais-suomalaisen koulun medialukutaito-sivusto: https://hrskmediakasvatus.wordpress.com/











Piirros: Matti Pikkujämsä
Piirros: Matti Pikkujämsä


Hallitus päätti lukiokoulutuksen uudistamisesta viime vuonna. Uudistus pitää sisällään lukiolain ja lukion toiminnallisen uudistamisen. Uudistusta suunnittelevat opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriö ja Opetushallitus yhdessä laajan sidosryhmä- ja asiantuntijajoukon kanssa. Valmistelussa hyödynnetään jo aikaisemmin lukion uudistamiseksi tehtyjä selvityksiä, kokeiluja ja hankkeita. Tavoitteena on valmistella esitys uudeksi lukiolaiksi tämän kevään aikana.

Mielestäni lukion uudistamisessa on otettava huomioon peruskoulun OPS 2016 reformin yleistavoitteet. Lukion tulisi olla sulava jatkumo peruskoululle niin sisällöllisesti kuin tavoitteellisestikin.

Nykylukion laajahko kurssivalikoima (75 kurssia) tarjoaa opiskelijoille erinomaisen yleissivistävän pohjan jatko-opintojen joustavaan valintaan ja monenlaisille työurille. Sen kaventaminen ei palvelisi opiskelijoiden etua.

Lukion opetussuunnitelmaa uudistettaessa on hyvä ottaa huomioon OECD:n 2030 suositukset maailmankansalaisuudesta ja EU:n jäsenmailleen suosittelemat 8 avainkompetenssia, joita Euroopan Komissio on parhaillaan päivittämässä.

Peruskoulun opetussuunnitelman yleistavoitteissa määritellään tavattoman hienosti opetuksen tavoitteet. Nämä pätevät melko pitkälle myös lukioon. Kannattaisi miettiä, miten näihin tavoitteisiin voitaisiin päästä lukiotasolla.

Lukiolaisemme tarvitsevat parempia sosiaalisia taitoja menestyäkseen opinnoissaan ja työelämässä. Heille tulisi antaa nykyistä parempi mahdollisuus harjoitella yhteistyötä, ryhmätyötä ja oikeita projektitöitä. Heille tulisi antaa mahdollisuus totutella koulun turvallisessa miljöössä maaimankansalaisuustaitojen kehittämiseen – miten toimia yhdessä erilaisen arvo-, kieli-, ja kulttuuritaustan omaavien ikätovereiden kanssa.

Oppilaiden aktivoiminen osallistuviksi kansalaisiksi edellyttää kiinnostuksen herättämistä koulun ja yhteiskunnan päätöksentekoprosesseihin. Muuttuva mediakenttä edellyttää hyvää kriittistä medialukutaitoa, kykyä analysoida monenlaista informaatiota, erilaisia tilastoja ja kykyä taitoa tarkastaa informaation oikeellisuus.

Suomalaisten lukioiden on vaikea kansainvälistyä nykyisen lainsäädännön puitteissa. Ylioppilaskirjoitusten kieleksi on määritelty ainoastaan suomi ja ruotsi. Tämä estää tehokkaasti monikielisten kurssien järjestämisen lukioissa.

Monissa peruskouluissa opiskellaan jo monia aineita esim. englanniksi. Suomalaiset yliopistot lisäävät myös vuosi vuodelta esim. englanninkielisiä opintokokonaisuuksia.

Ehkä luontevin tapa lisätä lukioiden kansainvälistymistä olisi avata lukio myös niille oppilaille, jotka eivät osaa puhua täydellistä suomea ja ruotsia. Tällä hetkellä esim. oppilasvaihtojen tekeminen on vaikeaa, koska lähes kaikki opetus on vain suomeksi ja ruotsiksi. Olisikin syytä pohtia, voisiko ainakin osan ylioppilaskirjoituksista suorittaa esim. englannin kielellä.  Samalla paikkakunnalla olevat koulut voisivat luoda yhteisiä vieraskielisiä opintokokonaisuuksia, joihin esim. Suomeen teini-iässä muuttaneet ulkosuomalaiset opiskelijat ja vaihto-oppilaat voisivat osallistua.

Monenlaiset yksilölliset opintopolut lisäävät opinnonohjauksen tarvetta.  Lukiolaisille voisi myös suunnata aivan uudenlaista tukea: erityisohjausta vaikeassa elämäntilanteessa oleville nuorille ja pienryhmä-coaching tyyppistä tukea opiskelijoille, joilla on puutteelliset opiskelutaidot tai hetkellistä motivaation puutetta.

Kari Kivinen

Helsingissä, 2.1.2018



Opetussuunnitelmissa puhutaan nykyään monilukutaidoista.

Sillä tarkoitetaan sitä, että osaa lukea ja tulkita kuvia, kirjaimia, numeroita, symboleita, sanoja, ääniä ja näiden yhdistelmiä. Se tarkoittaa myös sitä, että osaa itse tuottaa viestejä monin eri tavoin.

Tavalliseen luku- ja kirjoitustaitoon verrattuna monilukutaito on huomattavan paljon laajempi. Luettavat tekstit voivat olla painettuja, puhuttuja, audiovisuaalisia, analogisia, digitaalisia jne.

Me hahmotamme ja tulkitsemme maailmaa ympärillämme erilaisten viestien ja viestintävälineiden kautta. Monilukutaito tukee oppimista ja oppimisen taitojen kehittymistä ja se antaa meille avaimet kriittisen ajattelun kehittymiseen.

Mediakasvatus on monilukutaidon alakäsite. Mediakasvatuksen tavoitteena on antaa oppilaille työkaluja mediasisältöjen tulkitsemiseen ja tuottamiseen.

Uuden opetussuunnitelman tavoitteissa esitetään, että oppilaita tulisi ohjata hankkimaan tietoa erilaisista lähteistä ja välittämään tietoa muille. Heitä tulisi ohjata pohtimaan kuvitteellisen ja todellisen maailman suhdetta sekä myös sitä, että jokaisella tekstillä on tekijänsä ja tarkoituksensa. Tämä pohtiminen tukee kriittisen ajattelun kehittymistä.

Koulujen tulisi ohjata oppilaita analysoimaan mediaympäristöään ja oppia arvioimaan kriittisesti median roolia ja merkitystä. Heitä tulisi rohkaista käyttämään monilukutaitoaan myös vaikuttamiseen ja osallistumiseen heidän omassa elinympäristössä, mediassa ja yhteiskunnassa. Koulun tulisi tarjota tilaisuuksia näiden taitojen turvalliseen harjoittelemiseen.

Koulujen tehtäväksi on opetussuunnitelmassa annettu myös tavoite vahvistaa ja syventää oppilaiden kiinnostusta yhteisiä ja yhteiskunnallisia asioita kohtaan ja harjoitella toimintaa demokraattisen yhteiskunnan jäseninä. Tätä varten heidän tulisi saada tietoja ja kokemuksia yhteiskuntaa rakentavan osallistumisen keinoista ja muodoista.

Kouluikäiset lapset elävät keskellä valtavaa informaatiovirtaa. He lukevat lehtiä, kuuntelevat radiota ja katselevat TV:tä. Älypuhelimilla, padeilla ja tietokoneilla he surffaavat netissä, pelaavat, ovat aktiivisia sosiaalisessa mediassa, lähettävät ja saavat viestejä, kuvia, hymiöitä ja videoita. päivän Heitä ympäröivät aamusta iltaan vaihtelevat mediasisällöt, mainokset, brändit ja viestit, joilla heihin pyritään vaikuttamaan.

Oppilaat tarvitsevat hyvää monilukutaitoa – kykyä erotella jyvät akanoista, tosi tarusta ja informaatio disinformaatiosta.

Helsingin ranskalais-suomalaisen koulun medialukutaitoprojektissa #medialukutaito@presidentinvaalit sovelletaan Faktabaarin asiantuntijoiden käyttämiä faktantarkistustapoja koulukäyttöön sopiviksi presidentinvaalien seurannassa. Projektin edistymistä voi myös seurata FaktabaariEDU sivustolla.

Tavoitteena on rohkaista oppilaita analysoimaan mediaympäristöään ja innostaa heitä osallistumaan yhteiskunnalliseen keskusteluun.  Projektissa on mukana alakoulun,  yläkoulun ja lukion oppilaat.

Kari Kivinen

Fact-checking as tool to teach critical multi-literacy to future voters

Media met literacy in Sarajevo!

Media literacy professionals from all over Europe were gathered in Sarajevo in September 2017 to explore the huge challenges of our rapidly changing media world.

The founder of the Faktabaari, Mikko Salo, and the Director of the French-Finnish school of Helsinki, were invited to present the  #media-literacy to future voters-project in the  Media Meets Literacy -conference  organised by Evens foundation.

#media-literacy to future voters-project

The Finnish school reform raises multiliteracy as one of the core elements in order to educate active citizens capable of acting in our complex societies.

During the school year 2016 – 2017 an unconventional collaboration took place between Faktabaari, the award-winning Finnish Fact-checking service, and French Finnish school.

The basic idea of the collaboration was to adapt the proved fact-checking approach and methods used by Faktabaari into the education field linked to the curriculum of the school in various subjects (mother tongue, history, social studies). The goal was to create a joint approach for critical medialiteracy skills with the objective to test tools and learn debunking dis-information and false claims

14-year old students received information about the principles of journalism and adapted key concepts on fact-checking (code) and disinformation by Faktabaari.  Students explored election materials applying the adapted fact-checking methods. They practiced question making and answering through a mock-interview panel and they participated in the real election panel with real candidates and practiced fact-checking activities in real life situation!

The basic principles of the fact-checking method adapted for schools are relatively simple:

  1. Choose election relevant & documented claim to be fact-checked
  2. Identify: who, where, when and what said?
  3. Go to primary sources – 2 independent (help from teacher / school librarian) / use tools
  4. Write fact-check proposal for review
  5. Present written fact-check to your class for judgement (“True, “False” or “50/50”)
  6. Results can be published (school paper, website, video, FaktabaariEDU blog)
  7. Share the fact-check in your social networks – build trust

The outcome of the pilot project was very positive. Students took a real interest in the local election and they learned how the local municipality works. They got really active young participants in the local debate. They were able to verify themselves if the news/claims were true or not. They learned to check the sources and learned where to find help.

Through the process they learned also to adapt the fact checking methods in other areas e.g. to the social media news – thinking-twice-before-sharing-approach!

In the school year 2017-2018 the pilot project will be widening to concern also primary pupils and upper secondary students.

We are convinced that fact-checking as approach vaccines students against populism and empower their critical thinking without political bias and it provides students general tools and skills to survive in the digital environment including social media and visuals and provides students with some internet-literacy skills!

You can find my presentation here: “Curriculum and Teaching Critical Skills in Schools – MIL session”

The presentation of Mikko Salo was titled: “Fact-checking as tool to teach critical media-literacy to future voters & vaccination against populism”

More information: